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Prosjekttilbud - Forskerlinjen - Medisinstudiet

Her legges det ut prosjekttilbud som er særskilt meldt inn av veiledere. Få ideer til forskningsprosjekter og tematiske forskningsområder ved å se på  instituttenes web-sider, oversikt over instituttgrupper og forskergrupper. Ta gjerne direkte kontakt med gruppenes kontaktpersoner for mer informasjon. 

Human bocavirus and other virus in children with airway infections  #

Background: Children have on average six respiratory tract infections (RTI) each year. The majority are mild infections in upper airways, but some may involve lower airways, leading to more severe manifestations and need of hospitalization. In well-vaccinated children, the rate of bacterial RTIs have decreased, whereas the causative impact of viruses is likely to have increased. Recent years, new airway viruses have been detected. As an example, human bocavirus (HBoV), belonging to the parvovirus family, was detected in 2005. Genotype HBoV1 often appears simultaneously with other viruses and in healthy children, as well as in children with RTI, but still, we have docuented that HBoV1 is likely to cause RTI in children.

Aim: In this project, we aim to describe the epidemiology and clinical findings in children infected with HBoV1.

Methods: We have a dataset consisting of approximately 5000 children hospitalized with RTI and 600 controls, who were enrolled into a cohort study during an eleven yearlong period from 2006 – 2017. The presence of 17 viruses and several bacteria have been assessed, using modern nucleic-acid based methods and culture techniques. HBoV1-DNA appears in approximately 5-10% of both cases and controls, but mRNA mainly appears among those with RTI. Co-detection of one or more other viruses is common in both cases and controls. The task is, in a population based study, to describe the incidence of HBoV1 single infections (defined as a positive HBoV1-mRNA and/or high HBoV1-DNA level), among hospitalized children in Sør-Trøndelag county, describe the clinical manifestations in those with true HBoV1 infection, and explore the impact of co-detections of other viruses.

Research student thesis: The dataset may be used to write 2-3 papers. To fulfill a PhD, the student have various options, e.g. study the excretion time in HBoV1 infected children.

Research group and mentors: The study is a part of the studies in the CAIR-group. Mentors will be associate professor Andreas Christensen and Professor Henrik Døllner,  IKOM.

Other studies: In the same dataset, we have also data on other viruses such as adenoviruspara-influensaviruses and rhinovirus, to be used in other research student projects.

In addition, the research group have access to a large dataset with respiratory samples and clinical data from 3000 children hospitalized with respiratory infections at 5 major Norwegian hospitals, which may be used in research students projects.

Kognitiv svikt etter hjerneslag #

Årlig rammes ca. 12.000 personer i Norge av hjerneslag, og antallet personer som lever med ettervirkningene av hjerneslag er høyt og økende. Omtrent 10% får demens som følge av et førstegangshjerneslag og 30% av de som har hatt hjerneslag flere ganger. I tillegg til de som får demens, er det også mange som får mild kognitiv svikt. Demens og kognitiv svikt etter hjerneslag er en stor belastning både for den enkelte pasient, pårørende og samfunnet.

I perioden 2015-2020 gjennomføres en stor oppfølgingsstudie av pasienter med hjerneslag som ble innlagt ved fem norske sykehus, The Norwegian Cognitive Impairment After Stroke study (NorCOAST). Studien har inkludert 815 pasienter og er i 2020 ferdig med å følge opp pasientene i tre år etter hjerneslaget. Studien kartlegger kognitiv svikt etter hjerneslag for å gi svar på hvor vanlig det er, hvilke kognitive domener som rammes, hvordan den kognitive funksjonen endres over tid og hvilke faktorer som påvirker kognisjon etter hjerneslag.

NorCOAST-studien har etablert et nasjonalt forskernettverk for kognitiv svikt etter hjerneslag og det er mange pågående forskningsprosjekter tilknyttet studien, både ph.d.-prosjekter, postdoktorprosjekter, masteroppgaver, hovedoppgaver og en forskerlinjeoppgave. Aktuelle prosjekter for en forskerlinjestudent kan være å se på

  • svikt i spesifikke kognitive evner (rom-retningssans, eventuelt språk)
  • hvordan genetiske forhold innvirker på kognitiv svikt etter hjerneslag
  • sammenhengen mellom hvordan pasienten selv opplever sin situasjon etter hjerneslaget og hvilken svikt kognitive tester viser

Studien er svært interessert i videre samarbeid med forskerlinjestudenter og vi ber om at interesserte studenter kontakter oss snarest for en uforpliktende prat.

Kontaktpersoner: Ingvild Saltvedt ingvild.saltvedt@ntnu.no og Rannveig Eldholm rannveig.s.eldholm@ntnu.no, begge Institutt for Nevromedisin og bevegelsesvitenskap og Avdeling for geriatri, St.Olavs hospital 

Sleep better to feel better #

Sleep is a fundamental human need with large impact on both psychological and somatic health. However, for patients with mental disorders, sleep is often disturbed. Across all diagnostic groups, sleep disturbance is one of the most common and disruptive symptoms. For decades, it has been assumed that the sleep disturbance these patients experience was a secondary symptom of a primary mental disorder, but recently this has changed. Experimental and clinical data now suggest that there is a reciprocal relationship between sleep disturbance and mental disorders where they perpetuate and aggravate each other. This makes sleep disturbance a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of mental disorders.

Evidence emerging the last decade indicate that providing Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) to patients with mental disorders not only improves sleep, but also has clinically meaningful effects on their primary mental disorder. However, a major problem has been disseminating CBT-I and few therapists are trained in this intervention. Consequently, most patients receive sleep medication although evidence clearly indicate that CBT-I is more effective and should be the treatment of choice. In Norway 7% of the general population are prescribed hypnotics each year, with numbers likely to be higher in mental health care. As demand for CBT-I exceeds supply, a fully automated digital version of CBT-I (dCBT-I) has been developed that has been shown to be remarkably effective.

In this multicenter randomized controlled trial, we will test if this dCBT-I can be used to treat a large number of patients while they are still on the wait list to receive ordinary outpatient treatment in community mental health care clinics. Eight hundred patients will be randomized to dCBT-I or digital Patient Education about sleep (PE). The aims are to test if dCBT-I is effective in this patient group and if it can improve outcomes of ordinary treatment in mental health care and reduce medication use. Main outcomes will be assessed using patient self-report and official health registers. By focusing on improving sleep early in the course of treatment, using a digital treatment, the study represents a novel method of delivering mental health care services which could improve treatment quality and use of resources.

The candidate will be included in the Sleep and Circadian Rhythms Research group, lead by Håvard Kallestad, PhD, havard.kallestad@ntnu.no. The research group is integrated with the sleep clinic and acute ward at Østmarka, lead by Knut Langsrud. The research group has conducted several other randomized controlled clinical trials testing the effectiveness of interventions that act on sleep and the circadian system in individuals with mental disorders and in the general population. The candidate will participate in data collection of the above trial and will be able to write research papers from this or the other clinical trials that have been conducted in the research group.

Lifestyle factors and sex hormones as risk and causal factors for prostate cancer #

The incidence and mortality of prostate cancer in Norway are among the highest across the world. The known causes for the occurrence of prostate cancer are age and heredity that cannot be modified. The potential associations of lifestyle factors and sex hormones with overall and aggressive prostate cancer warrant further investigation, especially if they are the causal factors.

We will use the HUNT population data linking to the prostate cancer data from the Cancer Registry of Norway, including stage, metastasis and mortality. The population was followed up to 22 years. Longitudinal information on the lifestyle factors will be used. In addition, the Mendelian randomization (MR) method, using genetic variants as instruments for lifestyle or hormonal factors, will be applied to assess the potential causal associations. International data will be used to strengthen statistical power when appropriate.

 Identification of risk factors, particularly the underlying causal factors, will improve the effectiveness of prevention against prostate cancer. We are looking for a dedicated candidate who is keen on developing knowledge and skills in epidemiological methods and genetic epidemiology. You can find our scientific publications via https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/myncbi/xiao-mei.mai.1/bibliography/public/ Contact person: Xiao-Mei Mai, professor, Institutt for samfunnsmedisin og sykepleie 

Informasjon #

For å få vite mer om forskerlinjestudiet og hvordan finne prosjekt/veileder, ta kontakt med faglig leder for forskerlinjen, professor Anna Bofin, eller Cicilie Nordvik ==

Vi anbefaler også å ta kontakt med forskerlinjestudentene selv gjennom studentenes egen linjeforening, Signifikant.

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