What is Plan S

Norsk versjon: Hva betyr Plan S?

The Research Council, together with the EU Commission, the European Research Council ERC and research financiers throughout Europe, demand that all articles from the research they finance should be published with open access from 2020.

So far, there are 13 national research councils participating, from France, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, the UK, Sweden and Austria, as well as the Wellcome Trust and the Gates Foundation.

The goal is to ensure full and immediate open access to all research articles from 01.01.2020.


  • Authors retain the copyright of their publication without limitation. All publications must be published with an open license, such as CC BY license or equivalent.
  • The financiers will help to design robust requirements for quality assurance.
  • The financiers will help establish open publishing channels if high quality channels do not exist, and provide open access infrastructure if needed.
  • Publishing costs are covered by the financiers or institutions, not by individual researchers.
  • Publishing fees are standardized and have limits.
  • The financiers want coordination between the research institutions, especially to ensure transparency.
  • The requirements initially apply to journal articles, but will include books in the long term.
  • Open archives remain important for long-term archive function and the possibility of further development.
  • Hybrid publishing is not accepted.
  • The financiers will introduce sanctions if the requirements are not met.

Information and useful links

National goals and guidelines for open access to scientific articles

Science Europe writes about cOAlition S: What is coalition S?


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